Midlife forgetfulness and risk of dementia in old age

This study investigated whether midlife forgetfulness was an indicator of an increased risk of dementia in old age | Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

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Background: Despite the current evidence of a high prevalence of forgetfulness in middle-aged individuals, and the evidence of a link between midlife memory complaints and biological changes in the brain, no previous study has yet investigated midlife forgetfulness in relation to risk of dementia in old age.

Methods: We used data from 3,136 employed men and women who participated in the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study in 1990. These data were linked to Danish national registers. Participants were asked whether their closest relative had ever told them that they were forgetful. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were estimated using Poisson regression analysis.

Results: At baseline, 749 (24%) study participants were categorized as forgetful, and 86 (2.7%) participants were diagnosed with dementia during a total of 31,724 person-years at risk. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, comorbidities, and work-related factors, midlife forgetfulness was associated with a higher risk of dementia (IRR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.12–2.97).

Conclusions: This study is the first to investigate midlife forgetfulness and dementia, and the results suggest that midlife forgetfulness is an early indicator of an increased risk of dementia in old age.

Ishtiak-Ahmed, K et al. | Midlife Forgetfulness and Risk of Dementia in Old Age: Results from the Danish Working Environment Cohort Study | Dementia & Geriatric Cognitive Disorders | 2019

Disrupted sleep – a cause or consequence of Alzheimer’s?

In this blog, Honor Pollard explores if sleep problems could have a long-term effect on the brain| Alzheimers Research UK 

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Growing evidence points to a link between poor quality of sleep and an increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease. We know that disturbed sleep can be one of the earliest signs of Alzheimer’s and it often occurs years before changes to memory and thinking skills start to show. But this is not the full story when it comes to sleep and dementia.

A number of studies have shown that interrupted sleep may speed up the progression of Alzheimer’s in the brain. But it’s difficult for researchers to tease apart cause and effect. They need to work out whether poor quality sleep might contribute to the development of the disease or vice-versa.

Full article at Alzheimers Research UK 

 

Can blood pressure drugs help reduce dementia risk?

A large study analising the medical data of thousands of people suggests that dementia incidence is lower among those who take blood pressure medication | via Medical News Today

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A large new study has found a link between taking various kinds of blood pressure-lowering drugs and a lower risk of dementia among older adults, adding to the discussion around the link between cognitive decline and high blood pressure.

In their study the researchers analised data from 12,405 people, aged 60 or over, with dementia who attended one of 739 general practices in Germany as patients in 2013–2017. The team had access to all of these participants’ blood pressure values, as well as their medication records. This data was compared with those of 12,405 participants without dementia who had visited a general practice in the same time period.

The team found that those who took certain antihypertensive drugs — including beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin II receptor blockers — seemed to have a lower risk of dementia.

Moreover, among those who took calcium channel blockers — which are another type of blood pressure drug — for a longer period of time, the incidence of dementia also decreased.

Full story at Medical News Today

Full reference: Bohlken, Jensa;  Jacob, Louisb; Kostev, Karelc | The Relationship Between the Use of Antihypertensive Drugs and the Incidence of Dementia in General Practices in Germany | Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease | Published: 20 May 2019

Reducing the risk of dementia

Risk reduction of cognitive decline and dementia | The World Health Organisation

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These WHO guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations on lifestyle behaviours and interventions to delay or prevent cognitive decline and dementia.  Worldwide, around 50 million people have dementia and, with one new case every three seconds, the number of people with dementia is set to triple by 2050. The increasing numbers of people with dementia, its significant social and economic impact and lack of curative treatment, make it imperative for countries to focus on reducing modifiable risk factors for dementia.

These guidelines are intended as a tool for health care providers, governments, policy-makers and other
stakeholders to strengthen their response to the dementia challenge.

Full document: Risk reduction of cognitive decline and dementia

See also: WHO press release

Depression in type 1 diabetes and risk of dementia

Paola Gilsanz et al. | Depression in type 1 diabetes and risk of dementia | Aging & Mental Health | Volume 23:7, p880-886

Objective: Depression afflicts 14% of individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Depression is a robust risk factor for dementia but it is unknown if this holds true for individuals with T1D, who recently started living to an age conferring dementia risk. We examined if depression is a dementia risk factor among elderly individuals with T1D.

Methods: 3,742 individuals with T1D aged over 50 were followed for dementia from 1/1/96-9/30/2015. Depression, dementia, and comorbidities were abstracted from electronic medical records. Cox proportional hazard models estimated the association between depression and dementia adjusting for demographics, glycosylated hemoglobin, severe dysglycemic epidsodes, stroke, heart disease, nephropathy, and end stage renal disease. The cumulative incidence of dementia by depression was estimated conditional on survival dementia-free to age 55.

Results: Five percent (N = 182) were diagnosed with dementia and 20% had baseline depression. Depression was associated with a 72% increase in dementia (fully adjusted HR = 1.72; 95% CI:1.12-2.65). The 25-year cumulative incidence of dementia was more than double for those with versus without depression (27% vs. 12%).

Conclusions: For people with T1D, depression significantly increases dementia risk. Given the pervasiveness of depression in T1D, this has major implications for successful aging in this population recently living to old age.

Psychosocial risk factors and Alzheimer’s disease

New study predicts that sleep disturbance, depression, and anxiety increase the hazard of Alzheimer’s disease | Aging & Mental Health

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Objectives: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia is a neurodegenerative condition, which leads to impairments in memory. This study predicted that sleep disturbance, depression, and anxiety increase the hazard of AD, independently and as comorbid conditions.

Methods: Data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center was used to analyze evaluations of 12,083 cognitively asymptomatic participants. Survival analysis was used to explore the longitudinal effect of depression, sleep disturbance, and anxiety as predictors of AD. The comorbid risk posed by depression in the last two years coupled with sleep disturbance, lifetime depression and sleep disturbance, clinician-verified depression and sleep disturbance, sleep disturbance and anxiety, depression in the last two years and anxiety, lifetime depression and anxiety, and clinician-verified depression and anxiety were also analyzed as predictors of AD through main effects and additive models.

Results: Main effects models demonstrated a strong hazard of AD development for those reporting depression, sleep disturbance, and anxiety as independent symptoms. The additive effect remained significant among comorbid presentations.

Conclusion: Findings suggest that sleep disturbance, depression, and anxiety are associated with AD development among cognitively asymptomatic participants. Decreasing the threat posed by psychological symptoms may be one avenue for possibly delaying onset of AD.

Full reference: Burke, S. L. et al. |  Psychosocial risk factors and Alzheimer’s disease: the associative effect of depression, sleep disturbance, and anxiety | Aging & Mental Health | 2018 Vol. 22, issue 12 | p 1577-1584 |  DOI: 10.1080/13607863.2017.1387760

Half of UK adults can’t identify single key risk factor for dementia

Alzheimer’s Research UK | February 2019 | Half of UK adults can’t identify single key risk factor for dementia

Alzheimer’s Research UK, the the UK’s leading dementia research charity, has published its findings  from one of the most comprehensive surveys of UK-wide public perceptions of dementia. They have been published today (6 February) by Alzheimer’s Research UK. The Dementia Attitudes Monitor, which will be repeated biennially, includes data from 2,361 interviews conducted by Ipsos MORI between 15 June and 5 July 2018.

The charity’s findings highlight enduring misconceptions around the physical nature of the diseases that cause dementia as well as low understanding of the risk factors for dementia, which is now the leading cause of death in the UK.

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The Monitor reveals that just 1% of UK adults are able to name seven known risk or protective factors for the dementia (risk factors: heavy drinking, genetics, smoking, high blood pressure, depression and diabetes, protective factor: physical exercise) and 48% fail to identify any. With a third of cases of dementia thought to be influenced by factors in our control to change, the findings highlight a clear need for education around dementia prevention.

Key findings include:

  • More than half of UK adults (52%) now say they know someone with dementia.
  • Only half (51%) recognise that dementia is a cause of death* and more than 1 in 5 (22%) incorrectly believes it’s an inevitable part of getting older.
  • Only 34% of people believe it’s possible to reduce the risk of dementia, compared with 77% for heart disease and 81% for diabetes.
  • Three-quarters (73%) of adults would want to be given information in midlife about their personal risk of developing dementia later in life, if doctors could do so.

*Base: Adults 15+ in UK without a dementia diagnosis (2,354) (Source: Alzheimer’s Research UK)

Read the full news release at Alzheimer’s Research UK

Alzheimer’s Research UK Half of UK adults can’t identify single key risk factor for dementia

Read the full report here

See also:

Alzheimer’s Research UK’s Research Hub  Public attitudes towards dementia

In the news:

BBC News Dementia risk factors not known by half the population