Research shows dementia rates falling by 15% per decade over last 30 years

The risk of developing dementia is falling, thanks to lifestyle improvements such as reductions in smoking, new research has found. Researchers have said that while the overall number of cases is rising due to the population living longer, an individual’s chances of having the disease is going down | Alzheimers Research UK

International experts have presented research indicating that dementia incidence rates may be falling by up to 15% decade on decade. Analysing data from seven population-based studies in the United States and Europe, Prof Hofman and a global team of researchers set out to determine changes in the incidence of dementia between 1988 and 2015.

Of 59,230 individuals included in the research, 5,133 developed dementia. The rate of new dementia cases declined by 15% per decade, a finding that was consistent across the different studies included in the analysis.

The findings will be discussed at the Alzheimer’s Research UK Conference 2019 in Harrogate.

Full story at Alzheimer’s Research UK

See also:

In This video, lead author Albert Hofman, discusses trends in dementia incidence over the last three decades at the Alzheimer’s Research UK  Conference 2019. Prof. Hofman goes on to explain the reasoning behind these trends.

 

Marriage may lower the risk of developing dementia

Marriage may help stave off dementia, study finds | Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

fashion-2939996_1920

Researchers combining the results of 15 studies including data on more than 800,000 participants have found  that lifelong singletons and widowers appear to have a heightened risk of developing dementia.

Analysis of the data showed that lifelong singletons were 42% more likely to develop dementia than those who were married, and widowers were 20% more likely to develop the condition. Part of this risk might be explained by poorer physical health among lifelong single people, suggest the researchers.  Marriage may help both partners to have healthier lifestyles, including exercising more, eating a healthy diet, and smoking and drinking less, all of which have been associated with lower risk of dementia. Couples may also have more opportunities for social engagement than single people – a factor that has been linked to better health and lower dementia risk, the researchers suggest.

Full reference: Sommerlad A, et al. | Marriage and risk of dementia: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies |  Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry | published online 28 November 2017

Driving and dementia: a clinical update for mental health professionals

Allan, C.L. et al. (2016) Evidence Based Mental Health. 19. pp.110-113

speed-1249610_960_720.jpg

Most people with mild dementia can continue to drive, but dementia is progressive and many patients and clinicians will be faced with questions about driving safety in the course of their illness. Determining when this happens is a complex decision, with risks of personal and public safety needing to be weighed against individual patient benefits of driving in terms of autonomy, independence and well-being. Decisions need to make reference to cognitive abilities, as well as other factors including physical comorbidity, vision, mobility, insight and history of driving errors and accidents. Deciding to stop driving, or being required to stop driving is often difficult for patients to accept and can be a particularly problematic consequence of a dementia diagnosis. Legal frameworks help in decision-making but may not provide sufficient detail to advise individual patients. We review the current guidelines and evidence relating to driving and dementia to help clinicians answer questions about driving safety and to consider the full range of assessment tools available.

Read the full article here

Mental wellbeing and independence for older people | NICE Quality Standard

Quality standard [QS137] | NICE

nice-master-300dpi-2500px1-300x58This quality standard covers interventions to maintain and improve the mental wellbeing and independence of people aged 65 or older, and how to identify those at risk of a decline. It describes high-quality care in priority areas for improvement. It does not cover the mental wellbeing and independence of people who live in a care home or attend one on a day-only basis.

View the quality standard here

View the pathway here

Public unaware of the factors that increase the risk of dementia

Just 2% of people in Britain can identify all the health and lifestyle factors that can increase risk of developing dementia. | Public Health England

bsa
Image source: http://www.natcen.ac.uk/

More than a quarter (28%) of the British public is unable to correctly identify any potentially modifiable risk factor for developing dementia, according to new findings from the British Social Attitudes survey, which was commissioned by Public Health England (PHE).

 

The survey, carried out by the National Centre for Social Research (NatCen), asked the public if they could identify any of the following risk factors: heavy drinking, smoking, high blood pressure, depression and diabetes as well as the protective factor of taking regular exercise and found just 2% of the public is able to identify all of them.

Also, more than 1 in 4 people (27%) in Britain incorrectly believe that there is nothing anyone can do to reduce their risks of getting dementia. There is growing evidence that a third of dementia cases could be a result of factors potentially in our control, and actions like taking regular exercise and not smoking can reduce your risk of developing it. This means there is huge potential for prevention.

Full report: Attitudes to dementia: Findings from the 2015 British Social Attitudes survey

New research uncovers factors that can protect against cognitive decline and dementia

Alzheimer’s Society.Published online: 25 July 2016

face-535761_960_720Research at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference 2016 in Toronto, finds that certain genes and lifestyle factors can increase resilience against the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

These resilience factors may differ between men and women and may counteract the negative effects of a poor diet on cognition.

Factors such as the number of years spent in education, having a complex job and regularly doing activities that challenge the brain can contribute to resilience by helping to build up a ‘cognitive reserve’. Cognitive reserve is the ability of the brain to withstand certain levels of damage without any loss of function.

Read the full research overview here

 

Study addresses safety concerns for older adults with diagnosed/undiagnosed dementia

ScienceDaily. Published online: 23 June 2016

B0005919 The criminal mind
Image source: Rowena Dugdale – Wellcome Images // CC BY-NC-ND 4.0

Dementia currently affects some 5 million people in the U.S., and that number is expected to triple by 2050. Having dementia affects the way you think, act, and make decisions.

In a study published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, researchers examined how often older adults who have diagnosed and undiagnosed dementia engage in potentially unsafe activities.

The researchers examined 7,609 Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 to more than 90-years-old. Based on various cognitive tests, the researchers determined that 1,038 of the people they observed had probable dementia. Of that group, 457 had been diagnosed with dementia and 581 had not been diagnosed with dementia.

Nearly 1,000 participants tested as having “possible” dementia and 5,575 did not have dementia. Of the older adults with probable dementia, the researchers learned that:

  • 23 percent were still driving
  • 31 percent prepared hot meals
  • 22 percent managed their own finances
  • 37 percent managed their own medications
  • 21 percent attended doctors’ appointments alone

Read the full commentary here

Read the original research abstract here