In this review, Tarun Kuruvilla et al. consider three examples of delayed-onset PTSD and its frequent association, or misdiagnosis, as one of the numerous manifestations of the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia | Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry
Dementia sufferers commonly experience non-cognitive symptoms as their disease progresses. These symptoms are often labelled as behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and encompass a broad range of symptoms relating to mood changes such as depression and anxiety, psychosis, and inappropriate behaviours like wandering, shouting and agitation. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common diagnosis amongst working-age adults but it is infrequently diagnosed in the elderly, particularly those with dementia. Previous case reports have published examples of dementia sufferers experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms long after the original traumatic event. Despite these examples, little is known about the manifestation of traumatic exposure in the older adult population. We consider whether delayed-onset post-traumatic symptoms in the elderly are being misdiagnosed, instead falling under the umbrella of BPSD. In this article, we attempt to expand on previous work by describing three cases of delayed-onset PTSD associated with the development of dementia. We explore potential biological and psychosocial theories to explain the aetiology of these symptoms with reference to the literature. We end by considering the clinical implications for future practice, including suggestions for improved diagnosis and management.
Full reference: Martinez-Clavera, C. et al. (2017) Delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in dementia. Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry. Vol. 21 (no. 03).